Introduction to Algorithms Exercises
Introduction to Algorithms Exercises
I will put the actual implementation of exercises here.
I Foundations
1 The Role of Algorithms in Computing
1.1 Algorithms
1.11
Give a realworld example that requires sorting or a realworld example that requires computing a convex hull.
Skipped.
1.12
Other than speed, what other measures of efficiency might one use in a realworld setting?
Memory consumption.
1.13
Select a data structure that you have seen previously, and discuss its strengths and limitations.
Linked lists, where insertion and deletion take constant time, but locating an element by index takes linear time.
1.14
How are the shortestpath and travelingsalesman problems given above similar? How are they different?
They both need to minimize the total distance for travelling. But shortestpath is to find the shortest path between only two locations, while travelingsalesman is to find the shortest path containing all given locations.
1.15
Come up with a realworld problem in which only the best solution will do. Then come up with one in which a solution that is “approximately” the best is good enough.
Skipped.
1.2 Algorithms as a technology
1.21
Give an example of an application that requires algorithmic content at the application level, and discuss the function of the algorithms involved.
The Minesweeper game. You have to figure out if there is a mime under a button base on the numbers that you recovered. That is an algorithm.
1.22
Suppose we are comparing implementations of insertion sort and merge sort on the same machine. For inputs of size $n$, insertion sort runs in $8 n^2$ steps, while merge sort runs in $64 n \lg n$ steps. For which values of $n$ does insertion sort beat merge sort?
We can solve $8 n^2 < 64 n \lg n$ for $n$. Assume $n ≥ 0$, we get $n < 8 \lg n$. With the help of Wolfram Alpha, we know that $1.1 < n < 43.5593$. So for $n ∈ \left[2, 43\right]$, insertion sort beats merge sort.
1.23
What is the smallest value of $n$ such that an algorithm whose running time is $100 n^2$ runs faster than an algorithm whose running time is $2^n$ on the same machine?
Solve $100 n^2 < 2^n$ for $n$ (using Wolfram Alpha), we get $0.096704 < n < 0.103658$ or $n > 14.3247$, so the smallest value of $n$ is $0$.
Question: Should I only consider positive integer values for $n$?
1.X Problems
11 Comparison of running times
For each function $f\left(n\right)$ and time $t$ in the following table, determine the largest size $n$ of a problem that can be solved in time $t$, assuming that the algorithm to solve the problem takes $f\left(n\right)$ microseconds.
1 second 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 month 1 year 1 century $\lg n$ $\sqrt{n}$ $n$ $n \lg n$ $n^2$ $n^3$ $2^n$ $n!$
 1 second = 10⁶ microseconds
 1 minute = 6 × 10⁷ microseconds
 1 hour = 3.6 × 10⁹ microseconds
 1 day = 8.64 × 10¹⁰ microseconds
 1 month = 2.628 × 10¹² microseconds
 1 year = 3.154 × 10¹³ microseconds
 1 century = 3.156 × 10¹⁵ microseconds
1 second  1 minute  1 hour  1 day  1 month  1 year  1 century  

$\lg n$  $10^{301029.9957}$  $10^{18061799.7398}$  $10^{1083707984.3903}$  $10^{26008991625.368}$  $10^{791106828604.9426}$  $10^{9494486063241.967}$  $10^{950050666315524.8}$ 
$\sqrt{n}$  $10^{12}$  $10^{15.5563}$  $10^{19.1126}$  $10^{21.873}$  $10^{24.8393}$  $10^{26.9977}$  $10^{30.9983}$ 
$n$  $10^{6}$  $10^{7.7782}$  $10^{9.5563}$  $10^{10.9365}$  $10^{12.4196}$  $10^{13.4989}$  $10^{15.4991}$ 
$n \lg n$  $10^{4.7976}$  $10^{6.4474}$  $10^{8.1251}$  $10^{9.4401}$  $10^{10.8623}$  $10^{11.9019}$  $10^{13.8367}$ 
$n^2$  $10^{3}$  $10^{3.8891}$  $10^{4.7782}$  $10^{5.4683}$  $10^{6.2098}$  $10^{6.7494}$  $10^{7.7496}$ 
$n^3$  $10^{2}$  $10^{2.5927}$  $10^{3.1854}$  $10^{3.6455}$  $10^{4.1399}$  $10^{4.4996}$  $10^{5.1664}$ 
$2^n$  $10^{1.2995}$  $10^{1.4123}$  $10^{1.5017}$  $10^{1.5603}$  $10^{1.6155}$  $10^{1.6517}$  $10^{1.7117}$ 
$n!$  $10^{0.9636}$  $10^{1.0432}$  $10^{1.0984}$  $10^{1.1458}$  $10^{1.178}$  $10^{1.205}$  $10^{1.2421}$ 
The table is generated using following JavaScript code:
function generateTable() {
function binarySearch(f, target) {
const start = 0.000001;
const epsilon = 0.0000000001;
let left = start;
let right = start;
while (f(right) < target) {
right *= 2;
}
while (right  left > epsilon) {
const middle = left + (right  left) / 2;
const value = f(middle);
if (value < target) {
left = middle;
} else if (value > target) {
right = middle;
} else {
return middle;
}
}
return left + (right  left) / 2;
}
function normalize(x) {
return Math.round(x * 10000) / 10000;
}
const algorithms = [
{
label: "$\\lg n$",
func: (t) => Math.log10(2) * t
},
{
label: "$\\sqrt{n}$",
func: (t) => Math.log10(t) * 2
},
{
label: "$n$",
func: (t) => Math.log10(t)
},
{
label: "$n \\lg n$",
func: (t) => binarySearch(n => n * Math.pow(10, n) * Math.log2(10), t)
},
{
label: "$n^2$",
func: (t) => Math.log10(t) / 2
},
{
label: "$n^3$",
func: (t) => Math.log10(t) / 3
},
{
label: "$2^n$",
func: (t) => Math.log10(Math.log2(t))
},
{
label: "$n!$",
func: function (t) {
// TODO: use the Γ function (use Stirling's approximation?).
function fact(n) {
let result = 1;
let i = 2;
for (; i <= n; i++) {
result *= i;
}
if (i > n) {
result += result * (i  1) * (n + 1  i);
}
return result;
}
return binarySearch((x) => fact(Math.pow(10, x)), t);
}
}
];
const times = [
{
label: "1 second",
microseconds: 1e6
},
{
label: "1 minute",
microseconds: 6e7
},
{
label: "1 hour",
microseconds: 3.6e9
},
{
label: "1 day",
microseconds: 8.64e10
},
{
label: "1 month",
microseconds: 2.628e12
},
{
label: "1 year",
microseconds: 3.154e13
},
{
label: "1 century",
microseconds: 3.156e15
}
];
let result = `  ${times.map((x) => x.label).join("  ")} \n` +
`   ${times.map((x) => "").join("  ")} \n`;
for (const algorithm of algorithms) {
result += ` ${algorithm.label} `;
for (const time of times) {
result += ` $10^{${normalize(algorithm.func(time.microseconds))}}$ `;
}
result += "\n";
}
return result;
}
2 Getting Started
2.1 Insertion sort
2.11
Using Figure 2.2 as a model, illustrate the operation of InsertionSort on the array A = ⟨31, 41, 59, 26, 41, 58⟩.
Skipped.
2.12
Rewrite the InsertionSort procedure to sort into nonincreasing instead of nondecreasing order.
Just change A[i] > key to A[i] < key in the original code.
2.13
Consider the searching problem:
Input: A sequence of $n$ numbers $A = ⟨a_1, a_2, …, a_n⟩$ and a value $v$.
Output: An index $i$ such that $v = A[i]$ or the special value nil if $v$ does not appear in $A$.
Write pseudocode for linear search, which scans through the sequence, looking for $v$. Using a loop invariant, prove that your algorithm is correct. Make sure that your loop invariant fulfills the three necessary properties.
LinearSearch(A, v)
 for i = 1 to A.length
 if A[i] == v
 return i
 return nil
Loop invariant: A[1‥i  1] does not contain value v. The only way the loop continues is that A[i] ≠ v, so we know A[1‥i] does not contain value v. Then we increase i by 1, so again, A[1‥i  1] still does not contain value v. If the loop is completed, i must be equal to A.length + 1, so the whole array does not contain value v, then we return nil.
If for some i, A[i] == v, we will find it in line 2 and return i in line 3. The only way to escape the loop is either for some i, A[i] == v, or none of the elements equals to v. we can guarantee that if there is an element in A, we will find it.
2.14
Consider the problem of adding two nbit binary integers, stored in two nelement arrays A and B. The sum of the two integers should be stored in binary form in an (n + 1)element array C. State the problem formally and write pseudocode for adding the two integers.
Problem: Array A and B only contain elements of 0 and 1, and A.length == B.length == n. Array C that have length n + 1. Rewrite the elements in C so that C only contains 0s and 1s, and $\sum_{i=1}^n A[i] × 2^{n  i} + \sum_{i=1}^n B[i] × 2^{n  i} = \sum_{i=1}^{n + 1} C[i] × 2^{n + 1  i}$.
Pseudocode:
AddBinary(A, B, C)
 carry = 0
 for i = 1 to A.length
 sum = A[n  i] + B[n  i] + carry
 C[n + 1  i] = sum mod 2
 carry = sum / 2
 C[0] = carry
2.2 Analyzing algorithms
2.21
Express the function $n^3/1000  100 n^2  100 n + 3$ in terms of Θnotation.
$Θ\left(n^3\right)$.
2.22
Consider sorting n numbers stored in array A by first finding the smallest element of A and exchanging it with the element in A[1]. Then find the second smallest element of A, and exchange it with A[2]. Continue in this manner for the first n  1 elements of A. Write pseudocode for this algorithm, which is known as selection sort. What loop invariant does this algorithm maintain? Why does it need to run for only the first n  1 elements, rather than for all n elements? Give the bestcase and worstcase running times of selection sort in Θnotation.
The loop invariant: at the start of each iteration of loop, The first i elements contains the smallest i elements in A, and they are in nondecreasing order.
It only need to run for first n  1 elements because after the loop, we have rearrange the smallest n  1 elements, to the front of A, so the last element must be the biggest one, so the whole array is ordered.
Bestcase and worstcase running times are both $Θ\left(n^2\right)$.
2.23
Consider linear search again (see Exercise 2.13). How many elements of the input sequence need to be checked on the average, assuming that the element being searched for is equally likely to be any element in the array? How about in the worst case? What are the averagecase and worstcase running times of linear search in Θnotation? Justify your answers.
Assume the element to be searched is in the array, then the average elements to be checked is (n + 1) / 2.
Best case running time is Θ(1), worst case running time is Θ(n). If we are lucky, we can find the element at the first position, where only one element need to be checked. If we are unlucky, we can find the element at the last position, where all elements will be checked.
2.24
How can we modify almost any algorithm to have a good bestcase running time?
What? We can do that?
Skipped.
2.3 Designing algorithms
2.31
Using Figure 2.4 as a model, illustrate the operation of merge sort on the array A = ⟨3, 41, 52, 26, 38, 57, 9, 49⟩.
Skipped.
2.32
Rewrite the Merge procedure so that it does not use sentinels, instead stopping once either array L or R has had all its elements copied back to A and then copying the remainder of the other array back into A.
See here for implementation.
2.33
Use mathematical induction to show that when $n$ is an exact power of 2, the solution of the recurrence
$T\left(n\right) = \begin{cases} 2 &\text{if } n = 2 \\ 2 T\left(n / 2\right) + n &\text{if } n = 2^k, \text{ for } k > 1 \end{cases}$
is $T\left(n\right) = n \lg n$.
 Base case: If $n = 2$, $T\left(n\right) = 2$. Since $n \lg n = 2 \lg 2 = 2$, $T\left(n\right) = n \lg n$, so the claim holds.
 Inductive case: If $n > 2$, $T\left(n\right) = 2 T\left(n / 2\right) + n$, by induction, we know that $T\left(n / 2\right) = \left(n / 2\right) \lg \left(n / 2\right)$, so $T\left(n\right) = 2 \left(n / 2\right) \lg \left(n / 2\right) + n = n \lg \left(n / 2\right) + n = n \left(\lg n  1\right) + n = n \lg n$, The claim holds.
2.34
We can express insertion sort as a recursive procedure as follows. In order to sort A[1‥n], we recursively sort A[1‥n  1] and then insert A[n] into the sorted array A[1‥n  1]. Write a recurrence for the running time of this recursive version of insertion sort.
See here for implementation.
$$T\left(n\right) = \begin{cases} 1 &\text{if $n < 2$} \\ T(n  1) + Θ\left(n\right) &\text{if $n >= 2$} \end{cases}$$
2.35
Referring back to the searching problem (see Exercise 2.13), observe that if the sequence A is sorted, we can check the midpoint of the sequence against v and eliminate half of the sequence from further consideration. The binary search algorithm repeats this procedure, halving the size of the remaining portion of the sequence each time. Write pseudocode, either iterative or recursive, for binary search. Argue that the worstcase running time of binary search is Θ(lg n).
See here for implementations.
BinarySearch(A, v)
 left = 1
 right = A.length + 1
 while left < right
 middle = ⌊(left + right) / 2⌋
 if A[middle] < v
 left = middle + 1
 else
 right = middle
 if left ≤ A.length and A[left] == v
 return left
 else
 return nil
After each iteration, the length of the searching range reduces by half, until the range is empty. So we have:
T(n) = c₁, if n = 0;
T(n) = T(n / 2) + c₂, if n > 0.
We prove T(n) = Θ(lg n) by induction:
 If n = 0, Θ(lg n) = Θ(lg 0) = Θ(∞), … Not sure how to go from here.
 If n > 0, Θ(lg n) = T(n / 2) + c₂ = Θ(T(n / 2)). By induction, we know T(n / 2) = Θ(lg (n / 2)), so Θ(lg n) = Θ(lg (n / 2)) = Θ((lg n)  1) = Θ(lg n).
2.36
Observe that the while loop of lines 5–7 of the InsertionSort procedure in Section 2.1 uses a linear search to scan (backward) through the sorted subarray A[1‥j  1]. Can we use a binary search (see Exercise 2.35) instead to improve the overall worstcase running time of insertion sort to Θ(n lg n)?
No, we can not. Because despite the searching takes Θ(lg n) time, we still need to move n elements in the worstcase scenario, which taks Θ(n) time.
2.37 ★
Describe a Θ(n lg n)time algorithm that, given a set S of n integers and another integer x, determines whether or not there exist two elements in S whose sum is exactly x.
See here for implementations.
2.X Problems
21 Insertion sort on small arrays in merge sort
Although merge sort runs in $Θ\left(n \lg n\right)$ worstcase time and insertion sort runs in $Θ\left(n^2\right)$ worstcase time, the constant factors in insertion sort can make it faster in practice for small problem sizes on many machines. Thus, it makes sense to coarsen the leaves of the recursion by using insertion sort within merge sort when subproblems become sufficiently small. Consider a modification to merge sort in which $n / k$ sublists of length $k$ are sorted using insertion sort and then merged using the standard merging mechanism, where $k$ is a value to be determined.
 Show that insertion sort can sort the $n / k$ sublists, each of length $k$, in $Θ\left(n k\right)$ worstcase time.
 Show how to merge the sublists in $Θ\left(n \lg \left(n / k\right)\right)$ worstcase time.
 Given that the modified algorithm runs in $Θ\left(n k + n \lg \left(n / k\right)\right)$ worstcase time, what is the largest value of $k$ as a function of $n$ for which the modified algorithm has the same running time as standard merge sort, in terms of $Θ$notation?
 How should we choose $k$ in practice?
 Sort a sublist of length $k$ takes $k^2$ time, so sorting $n / k$ sublists takes $\left(n / k\right) Θ\left(k^2\right) = Θ\left(\left(n / k\right) k^2\right) = Θ\left(n k\right)$ time.
 Assume merging $n$ sublists takes $T(n)$ time, we have $T\left(n\right) = 2 T\left(n\right) + c_1 n$, if $n > 1$. Also, $T\left(n\right) = c_2$, if $n = 1$. Notice this is the same as equation 2.1 and 2.2. So we have $T\left(n\right) = Θ\left(n \lg n\right)$. So merging $n / k$ sublists takes $T\left(n / k\right) = Θ\left(\left(n / k\right) \lg \left(n / k\right)\right) = Θ\left(n \lg \left(n / k\right)\right)$.
 We need to solve the equation $n k + n \lg \left(n / k\right) < c n \lg \left(n\right)$. We can get $k  \lg k < \left(c1\right) \lg n$ from it. I think $k < Θ\left(\lg n\right)$, but I can’t prove it.
 With benchmarks and profiling.
22 Correctness of bubblesort
Bubblesort is a popular, but inefficient, sorting algorithm. It works by repeatedly swapping adjacent elements that are out of order.
Bubblesort(A)
 for i = 1 to A.length  1
 for j = A.length downto i + 1
 if A[j] < A[j  1]
 exchange A[j] with A[j  1]
Let A′ denote the output of Bubblesort(A). To prove that Bubblesort is correct, we need to prove that it terminates and that
A′[1] ≤ A′[2] ≤ … ≤ A′[n], (2.3)
where n = A.length. In order to show that Bubblesort actually sorts, what else do we need to prove?
The next two parts will prove inequality (2.3).
State precisely a loop invariant for the for loop in lines 2–4, and prove that this loop invariant holds. Your proof should use the structure of the loop invariant proof presented in this chapter.
Using the termination condition of the loop invariant proved in part (b), state a loop invariant for the for loop in lines 1–4 that will allow you to prove inequality (2.3). Your proof should use the structure of the loop invariant proof presented in this chapter.
What is the worstcase running time of bubblesort? How does it compare to the running time of insertion sort?

We also need to prove that the elements in A is the same as in A′.

The loop invariant: At the start of each iteration, A[j] is the smallest element in A[j‥A.length].
Proof:
 Initialization: Before the first iteration, j = A.length, So A[j] is the only element in A[j‥A.length], the claim holds.
 Maintenance:
 If A[j] < A[j  1], because we know that A[j] is the smallest element in A[j‥A.length], we can be sure A[j] is the smallest element in A[j  1‥A.length], after swapping A[j] and A[j  1], A[j  1] became the smallest element in A[j  1‥A.length]. After decreasing j, the loop invariant holds.
 If A[j] ≥ A[j  1], we know that A[j  1] is the smallest element in A[j  1‥A.length]. After decreasing j, the loop invariant holds.
 Termination: After termination, j = i, so we know that A[i] is the smallest element in A[i‥A.length].

The loop invariant: At the start of the loop, A[1‥i  1] is empty or contains the smallest i elements and are sorted.
Proof:
 Initialization: Before the first iteration, i = 1, So A[1‥i  1] is empty, the claim holds.
 Maintenance: After the inner loop, we know that A[i] is the smallest element in A[i‥A.length].
 If A[1‥i  1] is empty, i = 1, then A[1‥i] contains only one element and it is the smallest one in A[i‥A.length], so A[1‥i] is sorted and contains the smallest i element in A[1‥A.length]. After increasing i, the loop invariant holds.
 If A[1‥i  1] is not empty, then A[1‥i  1] contains the smallest i  1 element in A[1‥A.length] in sorted order, so A[i  1] ≤ A[i]. Because A[i] is the smallest element in A[i‥A.length], we know that A[1‥i] is sorted and contains the smallest i element in A[1‥A.length]. After increasing i, the loop invariant holds.
 Termination: After termination, i = A.length, and A[1‥A.length  1] contains the smallest A.length  1 elements in sorted order, so we know A[A.length  1] ≤ A[A.length], so the whole array is sorted.

Worstcase running time is $Θ\left(n^2\right)$, it is the same as insertion sort. But insertion sort have a bestcase running time which is $Θ\left(n\right)$, while the bestcase running time of bubble sort is still $Θ\left(n^2\right)$.
23 Correctness of Horner’s rule
The following code fragment implements Horner’s rule for evaluating a polynomial
$\begin{aligned} P\left(x\right) &= \sum_{k=0}^n a_k x^k \\ &=a_0 + x\left(a_1 + x\left(a_2 + … + x\left(a_{n  1} + x a_n\right) …\right)\right), \end{aligned}$
given the coefficients $a_0$, $a_1$, …, $a_n$ and a value for $x$:
 y = 0
 for i = n downto 0
 y = $a_i$ + x ⋅ y
In terms of Θnotation, what is the running time of this code fragment for Horner’s rule?
Write pseudocode to implement the naive polynomialevaluation algorithm that computes each term of the polynomial from scratch. What is the running time of this algorithm? How does it compare to Horner’s rule?
Consider the following loop invariant:
At the start of each iteration of the for loop of lines 2–3,
$y = \displaystyle\sum_{k = 0}^{n  \left(i + 1\right)} a_{k + i + 1} x^k$.
Interpret a summation with no terms as equaling 0. Following the structure of the loop invariant proof presented in this chapter, use this loop invariant to show that, at termination, $y = \sum_{k = 0}^n a_k x^k$.
Conclude by arguing that the given code fragment correctly evaluates a polynomial characterized by the coefficients $a_0$, $a_1$, …, $a_n$.
Codes are implemeted here.

Θ(n).

The psudocode:
 y = 0
 for i = 0 to n
 p = $a_i$
 for j = 0 to i
 p = p ⋅ x
 y = y + p
The running time of this algorithm is $Θ\left(n^2\right)$. It takes more time than Horner’s rule.

Proof:
 Initialization: Before the first iteration, i = n, $y = \sum_{k = 0}^{n  \left(i + 1\right)} a_{k + i + 1} x^k = \sum_{k = 0}^{1} a_{k + n + 1} x^k = 0$, so the claim holds.
 Maintenance: After line 3, $y' = a_i + x ⋅ y = a_i + x \left(\sum_{k = 0}^{n  \left(i + 1\right)} a_{k + i + 1} x^k\right) = a_i ⋅ x^0 + \sum_{k = 0}^{n  \left(i + 1\right)} a_{k + i + 1} x^{k + 1} = a_i ⋅ x^0 + \sum_{k = 1}^{n  i} a_{k + i} x^k = \sum_{k = 0}^{n  i} a_{k + i} x^k$. After decreasing i, the claim holds.
 Termination: At termination, i = 1, so $y = \sum_{k = 0}^{n  \left(\left(1\right) + 1\right)} a_{k + \left(1\right) + 1} x^k = \sum_{k = 0}^n a_k x^k$.

I thought I have proved it at step 3.
24 Inversions
Let A[1‥n] be an array of n distinct numbers. If i < j and A[i] > A[j], then the pair (i, j) is called an inversion of A.
 List the five inversions of the array ⟨2, 3, 8, 6, 1⟩.
 What array with elements from the set {1, 2, …, n} has the most inversions? How many does it have?
 What is the relationship between the running time of insertion sort and the number of inversions in the input array? Justify your answer.
 Give an algorithm that determines the number of inversions in any permutation on n elements in Θ(n lg n) worstcase time. (Hint: Modify merge sort.)

The five inversions are (1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 4), (3, 5) and (4, 5).

The array ⟨n, …, 2, 1⟩ has the most inversions. It has n × (n  1) / 2 inversions.

Let k be the inversion of an array, the the running time of insertion sort on it is Θ(k).
Let $k_i$ be the numbers of inversions whose second element is $i$. The total sorting time is $\sum_{i = 1}^n\left(c_1 k_i + c_2\right) = c_1 k + c_2 n = Θ\left(k\right)$.

See here.
3 Growth of Functions
3.1 Asymptotic notation
Notation  Definition 

f(n) = O(g(n))  ∃ c > 0, $n_0$ > 0: ∀ n ≥ $n_0$: 0 ≤ f(n) ≤ c g(n) 
f(n) = Ω(g(n))  ∃ c > 0, $n_0$ > 0: ∀ n ≥ $n_0$: 0 ≤ c g(n) ≤ f(n) 
f(n) = Θ(g(n))  ∃ $c_1$ > 0, $c_2$ > 0, $n_0$ > 0: ∀ n ≥ $n_0$: 0 ≤ $c_1$ g(n) ≤ f(n) ≤ $c_2$ g(n) 
f(n) = o(g(n))  ∀ c > 0: ∃ $n_0$ > 0: ∀ n ≥ $n_0$: 0 ≤ f(n) < c g(n) 
f(n) = ω(g(n))  ∀ c > 0: ∃ $n_0$ > 0: ∀ n ≥ $n_0$: 0 ≤ c g(n) < f(n) 
3.11
Let f(n) and g(n) be asymptotically nonnegative functions. Using the basic definition of Θnotation, prove that max(f(n), g(n)) = Θ(f(n) + g(n)).
In the following statments, n is big enough that both f(n) and g(n) is nonnegative.
Because f(n) ≤ max(f(n), g(n)), and g(n) ≤ max(f(n), g(n)), we know that f(n) + g(n) ≤ 2 max(f(n), g(n)). So 0.5 (f(n) + g(n)) ≤ max(f(n), g(n)).
Because f(n) ≤ f(n) + g(n), and g(n) ≤ f(n) + g(n), we know that max(f(n), g(n)) ≤ f(n) + g(n).
So we have 0.5 (f(n) + g(n)) ≤ max(f(n), g(n)) ≤ f(n) + g(n), max(f(n), g(n)) = Θ(f(n) + g(n)).
3.12
Show that for any real constants a and b, where b > 0,
$\left(n + a\right)^b = Θ\left(n^b\right)$. (3.2)
We want to find constant $c_1$, $c_2$ and $n_0$ so that if $n > n_0$, $c_1 n^b ≤ \left(n + a\right)^b ≤ c_2 n^b$.
$c_1 n^b ≤ \left(n + a\right)^b ≤ c_2 n^b$
⇔ $\left({c_1}^{1 / b}\right)^b n^b ≤ \left(n + a\right)^b ≤ \left({c_2}^{1 / b}\right)^b n^b$
⇔ $\left({c_1}^{1 / b} n\right)^b ≤ \left(n + a\right)^b ≤ \left({c_2}^{1 / b} n\right)^b$
⇔ ${c_1}^{1 / b} n ≤ n + a ≤ {c_2}^{1 / b} n$
⇔ ${c_1}^{1 / b} n  n ≤ a ≤ {c_2}^{1 / b} n  n$
⇔ $\left({c_1}^{1 / b}  1\right) n ≤ a ≤ \left({c_2}^{1 / b}  1\right) n$
We need $n$ to be greater than some $n_0$, so we should have ${c_1}^{1 / b}  1 < 0$, and ${c_2}^{1 / b}  1 > 0$, then we have $n ≥ \frac{a}{ {c_1}^{1 / b}  1}$, and $n ≥ \frac{a}{ {c_1}^{1 / b}  1}$, i.e. $n ≥ \max\left(\frac{a}{ {c_1}^{1 / b}  1}, \frac{a}{ {c_2}^{1 / b}  1}\right)$. Let $c_1 = \left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^b$, $c_2 = 2^b$, we have $n ≥ \max\left(2 a, a\right)$. So $n_0$ can be $\max\left(2 a, a\right)$.
Formally, for any $n > \max\left(2 a, a\right)$, $\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^b n^b ≤ \left(n + a\right)^b ≤ 2^b n^b$, $\left(n + a\right)^b = Θ(n^b)$.
3.13
Explain why the statement, “The running time of algorithm A is at least $O\left(n^2\right)$,” is meaningless.
It is like saying x is at least less than or equal to 10.
3.14
Is $2^{n + 1} = O\left(2 ^ n\right)$? Is $2^{2 n} = O\left(2^n\right)$?
$2^{n + 1} = 2 × 2^n = O\left(2 ^ n\right)$, $2^{2 n} = \left(2^n\right)^2 ≠ O\left(2^n\right)$.
3.15
Prove Theorem 3.1.
If f(n) = Θ(g(n)), c1 g(n) ≤ f(n) ≤ c2 g(n), for all n ≥ n0, for some c1, c2 and n0. Because f(n) ≤ c2 g(n), we know that f(n) = O(g(n)). Because c1 g(n) ≤ f(n), we know that f(n) = Ω(g(n)).
If f(n) = O(g(n)) then f(n) ≤ c2 g(n), for all n ≥ n0, for some c2 and n0. If f(n) = Ω(g(n)), then c1 g(n) ≤ f(n), for all n ≥ n1, for some c1 and n1. So c1 g(n) ≤ f(n) ≤ c2 g(n), for all n ≥ max(n0, n1).
3.16
Prove that the running time of an algorithm is Θ(g(n)) if and only if its worstcase running time is O(g(n)) and its bestcase running time is Ω(g(n)).
Running time of an algorithm is Θ(g(n)) means the running time is bounded by a function f(n) that c1 g(n) ≤ f(n) ≤ c2 g(n), for all n ≥ n0, for some c1, c2 and n0 > 0. So the worstcase running time is bounded by c2 g(n), and the bestcase running time is bounded by c1 g(n). So the worstcase running time is O(g(n)), and the bestcase running time is Ω(g(n)).
If the worstcase running time is O(g(n)), it means the running time is bounded by a function f1(n) from above that f1(n) ≤ c2 g(n) for sufficiently large n for some c2. If the bestcase running time is Ω(g(n)), it means the running time is bounded from below by a function f2(n) that c1 f(n) ≤ f2(n) for sufficiently large n for some c1. Because f1(n) and f2(n) is the worstcast running time and the bestcase running time, the running time is bounded by c1 g(n) c2 g(n), so the running time is Θ(g(n)).
3.17
Prove that o(g(n)) ∩ ω(g(n)) is the empty set.
Assume there exist a function f(n) that f(n) = o(g(n)) and f(n) = ω(g(n)), we have:
 For all c1 > 0, for some n0 > 0, for all n ≥ n0, c1 f(n) < g(n).
 For all c2 > 0, for some n1 > 0, for all n ≥ n1, c2 f(n) > g(n).
Let c2 = c1, n = max(n0, n1), we have c1 f(n) < g(n) and c1 f(n) > g(n) which is impossible, so f(n) does not exist. So o(g(n)) ∩ ω(g(n)) is the empty set.
3.18
We can extend our notation to the case of two parameters n and m that can go to infinity independently at different rates. For a given function g(n, m), we denote by O(g(n, m)) the set of functions
O(g(n, m)) = { f(n, m) : there exist positive constants c, $n_0$, and $m_0$ such that 0 ≤ f(n, m) ≤ c g(n, m) for all n ≥ $n_0$ or m ≥ $m_0$ }.
Give corresponding definitions for Ω(g(n, m)) and Θ(g(n, m)).
Ω(g(n, m)) = { f(n, m) : there exist positive constants c, $n_0$, and $m_0$ such that 0 ≤ c g(n, m) ≤ f(n, m) for all n ≥ $n_0$ or m ≥ $m_0$ }.
Θ(g(n, m)) = { f(n, m) : there exist positive constants $c_1$, $c_2$, $n_0$, and $m_0$ such that 0 ≤ $c_1$ g(n, m) ≤ f(n, m) ≤ $c_2$ g(n, m) for all n ≥ $n_0$ or m ≥ $m_0$ }.
3.2 Standard notations and common functions
3.21
Show that if f(n) and g(n) are monotonically increasing functions, then so are the functions f(n) + g(n) and f(g(n)), and if f(n) and g(n) are in addition nonnegative, then f(n) ⋅ g(n) is monotonically increasing.
 m ≤ n ⇒ (f(m) ≤ f(n)) ∧ (g(m) ≤ g(n)) ⇒ f(m) + g(m) ≤ f(n) + g(n).
 m ≤ n ⇒ g(m) ≤ g(n) ⇒ f(g(m)) ≤ f(g(n)).
 (m ≤ n) ∧ (∀ x: f(x) ≥ 0) ∧ (∀ x: g(x) ≥ 0)
⇒ (f(m) ≤ f(n)) ∧ (g(m) ≤ g(n)) ∧ (∀ x: f(x) ≥ 0) ∧ (∀ x: g(x) ≥ 0)
⇒ f(m) ⋅ g(m) ≤ f(n) ⋅ g(m) ≤ f(n) ⋅ g(n)
⇒ f(m) ⋅ g(m) ≤ f(n) ⋅ g(n).
3.22
Prove equation (3.16).
$a^{\log_b c} = \left(c^{\log_c a}\right)^{\log_b c} = c^{\left(\log_c a\right)\left(\log_b c\right)} = c^{\frac{\ln a}{\ln c} \frac{\ln c}{\ln b}} = c^{\frac{\ln a}{\ln b}} = c^{\log_b a}$.